Pistacia terebinthus - Terebinth
|Range:||Europe - Mediterranean.|
Terebinth will flower in November to January. the seeds ripen from April to May
The flowers from this plant are dioecious (each plant is either male or female, thus both genders need to be present to seed) and they are pollinated by
Soil InformationTerebinth will grow in light (sandy),medium (loamy), soil. It is / is important for the soil to be well drained.
The soil prefers the following PH / acid levels :
- pH of less than 6, Acidic soils
- pH between 6 and 8, Neutral soils
- pH greater than 8, Basic soils
Terebinth prefers either dry or moist soils
Ideal Planting LocationsTerebinth should not be planted in shady areas.
Dry open woods and scrub, usually in calcareous soils.
Planting places suited to this plant described below.
- Grows within a woodland garden
- Grows on a sunny edge
Cultivation DetailsRequires a deep well-drained light soil, preferring a hot dry position in full sun. It grows best in a sandy to stony alkaline soil. This species is hardy in most of Britain but it is slow growing[1, 200]. This contradicts the report, also in , that this plant is only hardy to zone 9 and is therefore intolerant of anything other than the lightest frosts. Any pruning that needs to be done is best carried out in the spring. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Edible Uses** See disclaimer
Edible Rating: 2/5
Seed - raw or cooked. Sweetish. It is sweeter and oilier than an almond. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[117, 183]. The immature fruits, including the stems, are preserved in vinegar and salt. Known as 'atsjaar', they are used as a relish to accompany wines served during meals. The fruit is about 7mm long and 6 mm wide, it contains a single seed. Young leaves - cooked and used as a vegetable[177, 183]. A resin from the trunk is used as a vegetable and as a chewing gum[177, 183].
- Fruit -
- Gum - can be chewed as a chewing gum or can often be used as a sweetener or thickening agent in foods.
- Leaves -
- Oil -
- Seed - includes nuts, cereals, peas and beans.
Medicinal Uses** See disclaimer
Medicinal Rating: 2/5
The resin obtained from this tree (see below for more details) is antiseptic, antispasmodic, cytostatic, expectorant and vulnerary[100, 238]. It is taken internally in the treatment of chronic bronchial infections, streptococcal, urinary and renal infections, haemorrhage, gallstones, tapeworm and rheumatism. Externally, it is used to treat arthritis, gout, sciatica, scabies and lice. It has also been used in the treatment of cancer.
- Cytostatic - Slows or controls the growth of tumours.
PropagationPre-soak the seed for 16 hours in alkalized water, or for 3 - 4 days in warm water, and sow late winter in a cold frame or greenhouse[78, 113]. Two months cold stratification may speed up germination, so it might be better to sow the seed in early winter. The germination is variable and can be slow. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving some protection from winter cold for their first year or two outdoors[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood from juvenile trees, July in a frame. Layering.
Scented parts of the plantsPlant : Crushed
Known HazardsNone known
Other UsesYields the resin 'Cyprus turpentine', which is obtained from incisions made in the bark (not the trunk) of the tree[1, 2, 11, 46, 117, 200]. The incisions are made from mid summer to mid autumn. It is mainly used medicinally in the treatment of cancer and also as a chewing gum. The plant can be used as a rootstock for the pistachio nut, P. vera. A red dye is obtained from galls that are formed on the leaves by aphis. The plant is a source of tannin.
- Dye - Plants that provide dyes.
- Resin - Used in perfumery, medicines, paints, soap making etc. This also includes turpentine, which is extracted from many resins and used as a preservative, water proofer etc,
- Rootstock - Plants used as the rootstock for grafting scions onto.
- Tannin - An astringent substance obtaied from plants, it is used medicinally, as a dye and mordant, stabilizer in pesticide etc.
Cultivarsno recorded cultivars
ReferencesTrees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Author: Bean. W.
Publisher : A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
Date of Publication : 1981
Publisher : An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
Date of Publication : 1964
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Author: Huxley. A.
Publisher : Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
Date of Publication : 1992
DISCLAIMER: All information published on AussieGardening.com.au is for entertainment purposes only. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained here with other sources. The information is not intended to replace medical advice offered by doctors or dietary advice by dieticians. AussieGardening.com.au will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.